Compadres Turismo » Blog Archive » A história da criação do Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra
terça-feira, 25 de julho de 2017


O Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, localizado no sudoeste de Minas Gerais, ao norte do Rio Grande, Lago de Mascarenhas de Morais, é um significativo fragmento do bioma Cerrado, possuindo grande importância relacionada a fatores históricos, ecológicos, hidrológicos e de geodiversidade, além de ser a segunda maior UC do Estado de Minas Gerais.
A região é um divisor natural de águas das bacias dos rios São Francisco e Paraná, contribuindo ao sul com o Rio Grande, e ao norte com o Rio São Francisco e do desconhecido Rio Samburá. O Samburá foi considerado por recentes estudos a verdadeira Nascente do Rio São Francisco, que, fica fora dos limites do Parque.
O Parque foi criado justamente para proteger as nascentes do São Francisco, rio Araguari e de diversos afluentes das bacias do rio São Francisco e do rio Paraná, assegurando a preservação de seus recursos naturais. A versão oficial remonta ao ano de 1971, quando uma forte seca assolou essa região e dificultou a navegação no rio São Francisco. Nessa época, jornalistas apontaram o desmatamento e a construção da represa de Furnas como responsáveis pela situação do rio. As imagens da seca, associadas ao desmatamento e às políticas de reflorestamento com eucalipto, culminaram num sentimento de salvação do rio e acabaram impulsionando uma campanha para salvação de nascentes.
Outras versões apontam que nos bastidores da ditadura militar ouvia-se que a principal razão para a criação dessa unidade de conservação era a segurança nacional, já que essa é uma área de serras nas proximidades da usina de Furnas, que estaria supostamente ameaçada de sofrer represálias por causa do regime militar.
O Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra foi criado pelo Decreto nº 70.355 de 03 de abril de 1972 e está distribuindo por seis municípios, Capitólio, Delfinópolis, Sacramento, São João Batista do Glória, São Roque de Minas e Vargem Bonita. Durante o processo de criação do Parque, a desapropriação de terras e a não aceitação dos limites dessa UC por parte da comunidade local foram motivos de conflitos entre esta e o órgão gestor. Do total da área decretada, 71.525 ha estão com a situação fundiária regularizada, ou seja, sob posse e domínio do ICMBio, enquanto os outros 126.262 ha são constituídos por propriedades/posses, não estando ainda regularizados.
Situação Fundiária do Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra.

A região onde o PNSC está localizado apresenta em sua topografia dois chapadões: o chapadão da Canastra que constitui a área regularizada, e o chapadão da Babilônia onde estão localizadas as áreas apenas decretadas. Entre os chapadões existem vales de terras férteis, sendo eles o Vale dos Cândidos, o Vale da Babilônia, o Vale da Bateia, Vale da Gurita, Vale do Céu e Vale dos Canteiros.

Autor: Conrado Oliveira de Pádua Andrade
Turismólogo, Guia de Turismo e Mestre em Meio Ambiente

Fontes consultadas
IBAMA – Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e de Recursos Naturais Renováveis. Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra. Revisão do plano de manejo. Brasília. 2005.
FERREIRA, G.H.C. A Regularização Fundiária no Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra e a expropriação camponesa: da baioneta à ponta da caneta. Dissertação Mestrado – Faculdade de filosofia. Universidade de São Paulo. USP. 261f. 2013.
SOARES, C. C.; BIZERRIL, M. X.; SANTOS, J. P. (orgs). Um lugar chamado Canastra. Atibaia-SP: Instituto Pró-Carnívoro, 2008.

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